One of the most significant studies in health has just celebrated 65 years since it started, and it’s still going strong.

Over those 65 years, residents of the small town of Framingham in Massachusetts, USA, have been participating in long-term studies looking at heart disease and its causes.

By the mid-1950s, the number of middle-aged men succumbing to coronary heart disease was causing serious concern – not least when several world leaders developed it. The disease had been on the rise since the start of the 20th century and the Framingham Heart Study set out in 1958 to establish what was behind this.

The study initially recruited more than 5,000 men and women, nearly a fifth of the whole population of Framingham. The researchers collected data about each of the participants every two years using interviews, clinical examinations and laboratory tests. The data covered participants’ lifestyle and environment as well as looking at their health and genetic profiles. This helped to show the importance of not smoking, taking enough physical activity, treating high blood pressure, avoiding obesity and the importance of blood fats in preventing coronary heart disease.

By 1971 the study had recruited a second generation of participants and in 1994 it extended its recruitment to reflect the changing population resulting from an influx of South Americans. 2002 saw the recruitment of a third generation. Over time, the study was widened to include other diseases, notably type 2 diabetes and dementia.

There were similar studies going on elsewhere but none was quite so comprehensive or prolonged. The Framingham study resulted in many papers published in leading scientific journals, and the work was widely discussed in scientific societies worldwide, greatly influencing research, debate and health policy.

Indeed, the findings in this and the other studies changed the way doctors looked at illness. Previously, most doctors thought of an illness as being caused by germs. If the germs could be killed or prevented from spreading, the illness would be eliminated. The Framingham discoveries required a rethink. This resulted in the concept of ‘non-communicable disease’ to explain much of modern illness and highlighted the importance of what we as individuals could do to prevent these diseases, as well as transforming the public health agenda.

There are questions over the future of this study, and whether it will continue to bring sufficient returns on the cost now that its primary objectives have been achieved. The US government has cut substantially its share of the funding.

But the fact remains that this study generated a novel way of looking at all disease and increased phenomenally our understanding of coronary heart disease.

About the study:  http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about/

© 2012 How to Live to 110 Suffusion theme by Sayontan Sinha